Learning the Basics of the Mongolian Language

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The Alphabet:

While Mongolians used to use the traditional script for writing, today the official writing system in Mongolia is the Mongolian Cyrillic. It’s similar to Russian Cyrillic, but with some additional letters.

Vowels: А а, И и, О о , Ө ө, У у, Ү ү, Я я, Ю ю, Е е, Ё ё, Й й, Ы ы, Э э

Consonants: Б б, В в, Г г, Д д, Ж ж, З з, К к, Л л, М м, Н н, П п, Р р, С с, Т т, Х х, Ц ц, Ч ч, Ш ш, Щ щ


А а – Pronounced like Aahh

Б б – Pronounced like Behh

В в – Pronounced like Vehh

Г г – Pronounced like Gehh

Д д – Pronounced like Dehh

Е е – Pronounced like Yeh

Ё ё – Pronounced like Yoh

Ж ж – Pronounced like Jeh

З з – Pronounced like Zeh

И и – Pronounced like Ee

Й й – Pronounced like Ee

К к – Pronounced like Khah

Л л – Pronounced like ILL

М м – Pronounced like Imm

Н н – Pronounced like Inn

О о – Pronounced like Ohh

Ө ө – Pronounced like Uhh

П п – Pronounced like Peh

Р р – Pronounced like Irr with rolling R

С с – Pronounced like Isse

Т т – Pronounced like Teh

У у – Pronounced like Uh

Ү ү – Pronounced like Oo

Ф ф  – Pronounced like Fah & Feh

Х х –  – Pronounced like Hah, Heh

Ц ц – Pronounced like Tse

Ч ч  – Pronounced like Che

Ш ш  – Pronounced like Ish

Щ щ  – Pronounced like Ishtse

ъ – It’s a vowel hardener, no sound

ь – It’s a vowel softener, no sound

Ы ы – Pronounced like Ee

Э э  – Pronounced like Eh

Ю ю  – Pronounced like Yu

Я я – Pronounced like Ya

Counting in Mongolian

Numbers: Zero to Hundred

  1. Teg – Тэг
  2. Neg – Нэг
  3. Hoyor – Хоёр
  4. Gurav – Гурав
  5. Duruv – Дөрөв
  6. Tav – Тав
  7. Zurga – Зургаа
  8. Dolo – Долоо
  9. Nayim – Найм
  10. Yus – Ес
  11. Arav – Арав
  12. Arvan Neg – Арван нэг
  13. Arvan Hoyor – Арван хоёр
  14. Arvan Gurav – Арван гурав
  15. Arvan Duruv – Арван дөрөв
  16. Arvan Tav – Арван тав
  17. Arvan Zurga – Арван зургаа
  18. Arvan Dolo – Арван долоо
  19. Arvan Nayim – Арван найм
  20. Arvan Yus – Арван ес
  21. Hori – Хорь
  22. Horin Neg – Хорин нэг
  23. Horin Hoyor – Хорин хоёр
  24. Horin Gurav – Хорин гурав
  25. Horin Duruv – Хорин дөрөв
  26. Horin Tav – Хорин тав
  27. Horin Zurga – Хорин гурав
  28. Horin Dolo – Хорин долоо
  29. Horin Nayim – Хорин найм
  30. Horin Yus – Хорин ес
  31. Guchi – Гуч
  32. Duchi – Дөч
  33. Tavi – Тавь
  34. Jar – Жар
  35. Dal – Дал
  36. Naya – Ная
  37. Yer – Ер
  38. Zu – Зуу

Numbers: Hundreds to Thousands

  1. Zun Neg – Зуун нэг
  2. Zun Hoyor – Зуун хоёр
  3. Zun Arvan Neg – Зуун арван нэг
  4. Zun Horin Hoyor – Зуун арван хоёр
  5. Hoyor Zu – Хоёр зуу
  6. Gurvan Zu – Гурван зуу
  7. Durvun Zu – Дөрвөн зуу
  8. Tavan Zu – Таван зуу
  9. Zurgan Zu – Зургаан зуу
  10. Dolon Zu – Долоон зуу
  11. Naiman Zu – Найман зуу
  12. Yusun Zu – Есөн зуу
  13. Myanga – Мянга
  14. Myanga Neg – Мянга нэг
  15. Myanga Arvan Neg – Мянга арван нэг
  16. Myanga Zun Arvan Neg – Мянга зуун арван нэг
  17. Hoyor Myanga – Хоёр мянга
  18. Gurvan Myanga – Гурван мянга
  19. Durvun Myanga – Дөрвөн мянга
  20. Tavan Myanga – Таван мянга
  21. Zurgan Myanga – Зургаан мянга
  22. Dolon Myanga – Долоон мянга
  23. Naiman Myanga – Найман мянга
  24. Yusun Myanga – Есөн мянга

10,000. Arvan Myanga – Арван мянга

100,000. Zun Myanga – Зуун мянга

Note: If you noticed, once you pass Hoyor (two), N gets added in for numbers bigger than ten. The exception for not adding N for long numbers are Myanga (thousand), Saya (million), and terbum (billion). Pretty simple and straightforward. For example 912,340 would be, Yus-un zuu-n + arva-n hoyr myanga + gurva-n zuu-n duchi.

Translated directly to English would be: Nines of hundreds + ten and two of thousand + threes of hundreds and forty.

To Be & Conjugations

Difference between Chi & Ta: When you want to say “You” to someone, make sure it’s appropriate. They both mean you, but Chi is used when talking to someone of your own age, Ta is used when talking to someone who’s older, has higher social status, or if you just want to be polite.

To be: To be is pretty simple. Bol (бол) just means is/are. It doesn’t matter if it’s plural or singular. It stays the same. There is no feminine or masculine in the Mongolian language so it’s pretty straightforward to add any verbs.

I am – Be bol (Би бол)

You are – Chi/ta bol (Чи/та бол)

S/He is – Ter bol (Тэр бол)

We are – Bid bol (Бид бол)

They/Them are – Ted bol (Тэд бол)

They are – Ted nar bol (Тэд нар бол)

Conjugations: Present simple is also pretty easy as it always stays the same. Doesn’t matter if it’s singular or plural. Remember there is no masculine or feminine in the Mongolian language, so Present Simple verbs are constant. Let’s take the world to go as an example. In Mongolian it’s yavah or явах.

I go – Be yavdag (Би явдаг)

You go – Chi/ta yavdag (Чи/та явдаг)

S/He goes – Ter yavdag (Тэр явдаг)

We go – Bid yavdag (Бид явдаг)

They/Them go – Ted yavdag (Тэд явдаг)

They go – Ted nar yavdag (Тэд нар явдаг)

Basic Introductions

Introducing yourself:

You’ll notice that gedeg (гэдэг) is often used. It just means “is” There are formal and informal ways of introducing yourself and others to people. Formal is most often used when you are presenting yourself in a serious manner or when addressing a crowd, informal is used in other occasions.


I am Orgil – Be Orgil (Би Оргил)

You are Orgil – Chi/ta bol Orgil (Чи/та бол Оргил)

S/He is Orgil – Ter bol Orgil (Тэр бол Оргил)

We are Orgil – Bid bol Orgil (Бид бол Оргил)

They are Orgil – Ted bol Orgil (Тэд бол Оргил)


My name is Orgil – Namaig Orgil gedeg (Намайг Оргил гэдэг)

Your name is Orgil – Chamaig/taniig Orgil gedeg (Чамайг/таныг Оргил гэдэг)

His name is Orgil – Teriig Orgil gedeg (Тэднийг Оргил гэдэг)

Our name is Orgil – Bidniig Orgil gedeg (Биднийг Оргил гэдэг)

Their name is Orgil – Tedniig Orgil gedeg (Тэднийг Оргил гэдэг)

Introducing Your Age:

You can say it in two ways. Formal literally means, I have X numbers of age. Informal literally means I have X age. Formal version can be used in informal situations just fine, but most often it is used when giving presentations to a crowd of people. Unless you are addressing a crowd, you should just use the informal version.


I am 24 years old – Be horin durvun nastai (Би хорин дөрвөн настай)

You are 24 years old – Chi/ta horin durvun nastai (Чи/та хорин дөрвөн настай)

S/He is 24 years old – Ter horin durvun nastai (Тэр хорин дөрвөн настай)

We are 24 years old – Bid horin durvun nastai (Бид хорин дөрвөн настай)

They are 24 years old – Ted horin durvun nastai (Тэд хорин дөрвөн настай)


I am 24 – Be horin duruvtei (Би хорин дөрөвтэй)

You are 24 – Chi/ta horin duruvtei (Чи/та хорин дөрөвтэй)

S/He is 24 – Ter horin duruvtei (Тэр хорин дөрөвтэй)

We are 24 – Bid horin duruvtei (Бид хорин дөрөвтэй)

They are 24Ted horing duruvtei (Тэд хорин дөрөвтэй)

Asking People’s Names:

When asking someone’s name, it’s best to use the formal version. Informal way of asking is mostly used when you are confused or somewhat angry.


Who am I? – Bi hen be? (Би хэн бэ?)

Who are you? Chi/ta Hen be? (Чи/та хэн бэ?)

Who is s/he? – Ter hen be? (Тэр хэн бэ?)

Who are we? – Bid hen be? (Бид хэн бэ?)

Who are they? – Ted hen be? (Тэд хэн бэ?)


What is my name? Namaig hen gedeg ve? (Намайг хэн гэдэг вэ?)

What is your name? – Chamaig/taneeg  hen gedeg ve? (Чамайг/таныг хэн гэдэг вэ?)

What is his/her name? – Terniig hen gedeg ve? (Тэрнийг хэн гэдэг вэ?)

What is our name? – Bidniig hen gedeg ve? (Биднийг хэн гэдэг вэ?)

What is their names? Tedniig hen gedeg ve? (Тэднийг хэн гэдэг вэ?)

Asking People’s Age:

Formal is often used when you are talking to strangers or when you are genuinely curious about someone’s age. Informal is used to ask someone’s age without making a big deal out of it in a social setting.


How much age do I have? Bi heden nastai ve? (Би хэдэн настай вэ?)

How much age do you have? Chi/ta heden nastai ve? (Чи/та хэдэн настай вэ?)

How much age does s/he have? Ter heden nastai ve? (Тэр хэдэн настай вэ?)

How much age do we have? Bid heden nastai ve? (Бид хэдэн настай вэ?)

How much age do they have? Ted heden nastai ve? (Тэд нар хэдэн настай вэ?)


How old am I? Bi hedtei ve? (Би хэдтэй вэ?)

How old are you? Chi/ta hedtei ve? (Чи/та хэдтэй вэ?)

How old is s/he? Ter hedtei ve? (Тэр хэдтэй вэ?)

How old are we? Bid hedtei ve? (Бид хэдтэй вэ?)

How old are they? Ted hedtei ve? (Тэд хэдтэй вэ?)

Simple Phrases

Hi / Hello – Sain baina uu? Сайн байна уу?

What’s up? – Yu baina? Юу байна?

How are you? – Sain uu? Сайн уу?

Do you want to grab a drink? – Yum olj u-uh u? Pivdoh u? Юм олж уух уу? Пиводох уу?

Who is it? – Hen be? Хэн бэ?

How was your day? Sonin hachin? Сонин хачин?

What have you been up to? Yu heeged ill baina da? Юу хийгээд л байна даа?

Goodbye – Bayrtai, baka, bye. Баяртай, бака

See you tomorrow – Margaash uulzya. Маргааш уулзЪя

Talk to you later – Daraa yariya. Дараа ярЪя

How much? – Une hed ve? Үнэ хэд вэ?

Where is X / Where can I find X – X haana baidag ve? X хаана байдаг вэ?

Can you help me? – Nadad tuslaach? Надад туслаач?

Thank you – Bayarlalaa. Баярлалаа

You’re welcome – Zugeeree. Зүгээрээ

I am from (Insert Country) – Be (Insert Country). Би (Insert Country)

Excuse me – Uuchlaarai. Уучлаарай

Go to X – X yavna. Х явна

Does this go to X – Ene X yavdag u? Энэ Х явдаг уу?

Yes – Tiim. Тийм

No – Ugui. Үгүй

I don’t understand – Be oilgodogguie. Би ойлгодүггүй ээ.

Do you speak X ? – Ta X heleer yaridag u? Та Х хэлээр ярьдаг уу?

Could you repeat that? – Ta dahiad heleed uguch? Та дахиад хэлээд өгөөч?

Let’s go – Yavya. ЯвЪя

Where do you live – Chi/ta haana amidardag ve? Чи/та хаана амьдардаг вэ?

What is this? – Ene yu ve? Энэ юу вэ?

How do you say X in Mongolian – X Mongolor yu gedeg ve? Х Монголоор юу гэдэг вэ?

How many are there? – Hed baigaa ve? Хэд байгаа вэ?

Are you okay – Chi/ta zuger u? Чи/та зүгээр үү?

What’s happening – Yu bolod baina? Юу болоод байна?

I’m hungry – Bi ulsuj baina. Би өлсөж байна

I’m tired – Bi yadarch baina. Би ядарч байна

I have to go – Be yavah heregtei baina. Би явах хэрэгтэй байна

Good luck – Amjilt husie. Амжилт хүсье

I love you – Be chamd hairtai. Би чамд хайртай

I like you – Be chamd durtai. Би чамд дуртай

Simple Vocabulary

Bus – Avtobus. Автобус

Train – Bogon. Богоон

Fly – Niseh. Нисэх

Airplane – Ongots. Онгоц

Money – Mungu. Мөнгө

Bag – Tsunh. Цүнх

Horse – Mori. Морь

Food – Ho-ol. Хоол

Dog – Nohoi. Нохой

Cat- Mu-ur. Муур

American – Amerik, Америк

English – Angli, Англи

French – Frants, Франц

Japanese – Yapon, Япон

German – Gherman, Герман

Russian – Oros, Орос

Brazilian – Brazil, Бразил

Spanish – Espani, Испани

Chinese – Hyatad, Хятад

Korean – Solongos, Солонгос

Additional Resources

For future updates and improvements, please buy the book or hire me as a private tutor to support my work J

You can buy the full book here: https://orgilproductions.com/shop/

If you want to hire me as a tutor: https://orgilproductions.com/contact-me/